Hard Liquor – “If you are seeking a lower-carb alcoholic beverages, choosing a spirit over wine, beer, or cider will be a lower-carbohydrate option,” says Olivia Wagner, RDN, an integrative dietitian-nutritionist. “Overall, the quantity will determine the total carb load, so it’s important to keep that in mind,” she says.
- 1 Is tequila the lowest calorie alcohol?
- 2 How many calories are in 3 shots of tequila?
- 3 Is all tequila 0 calories?
- 4 What is the healthiest alcohol?
- 5 What is healthier vodka or tequila?
- 6 Why is tequila the healthiest alcohol?
- 7 Is tequila more fattening than beer?
- 8 Is tequila less calories or vodka?
Is tequila the lowest calorie alcohol?
Whether you’re considering a shot or making a cocktail, here is a breakdown of the calorie count for some of the most popular spirits. As you can see, vodka is the lowest calorie spirit, and tequila is a close second.
How many calories are in 2 shots of tequila?
Nutritional Summary: –
How many calories is 1 shot of tequila?
How Many Calories In A Shot Of Tequila? – In general, a single shot of tequila (1.5 ounces) contains approximately 97 calories. While this may seem like a relatively low amount of calories, it can add up quickly when having multiple shots in a short period of time. Additionally, the calorie count can increase depending on how sweet the tequila is or if other ingredients are added to the drink.
How many calories are in 3 shots of tequila?
Nutritional Summary: –
Is tequila OK for weight loss?
2. Fat 0g and Carbs 0g – we like the sound of that! Tequila is ideal for dieters and those watching their weight. – You have undoubtedly heard that drinking alcohol can cause you to gain weight, but this surprisingly isn’t the case with tequila. This is because it has a low calorie count.
- It’s about 97 calories per shot, which is less than the number of calories in many other alcoholic beverages and even in some non-alcoholic drinks.
- It also contains 0g of carbs, 0g of fat per serving, and 0g of saturated fat.
- This is great for people who want to lose weight or are on diets.
- This also means that people on low-carb diets and keto diets can drink this spirit without compromising their diet goals! Drinking tequila before and after a meal can also help your metabolism, which is excellent for weight loss.
Considering the lower calorie count and 0g of carbohydrates, it makes it a great choice when you’re working on losing weight or want to enjoy a drink without the worry of putting on any pounds.
Is all tequila 0 calories?
How many calories in a shot of Tequila by types? – The calorie count of tequila depends on its type:
A shot of silver or blanco tequila contains around 98 calories. A shot of reposado (aged for two months in wood barrels) tequila contains about 103 calories. A shot of añejo (aged for at least a year in wood barrels) tequila contains around 105 calories. A shot of mezcal (produced from any type of agave plant, not just blue agave) contains around 96 calories.
What tequila has 0 calories?
Ritual spirits are made for cocktails and not meant to be consumed straight or neat. A HEALTHIER CHOICE – The grassy flavor, smoky aroma and bright fire of tequila without the alcohol or calories, for conscious consumption that leaves you at your best.
Why is tequila so high in calories?
Alcohol – Since tequila does not provide any carbohydrates, protein, or fat, you might wonder where the calories come from. Tequila (40% ABV or 80 proof) contains 14 grams of alcohol. Each gram of alcohol provides 7 calories. Therefore, all of the calories in tequila come from alcohol when it is consumed straight up or on ice.
How healthy is tequila?
Infographic: Classic Tequila Drinks – Tequila, a popular distilled beverage, is most often served with salt and lemon juice. You can relax with this Mexican liquor in the midst of a tropical summer. It also boosts your health when consumed in moderation. Learn more about the traditional cocktail recipes made with tequila and how you can make them at home. Check the infographic given below. Illustration: StyleCraze Design Team The benefits of tequila are gaining popularity. It has no added sugars and is considered a healthy alcoholic choice for relaxation. If taken in moderation, its cocktails may promote skin health and weight loss. Also, its agave content positively affects glucose levels and may benefit those with diabetes.
What is the healthiest alcohol?
Alcohol isn’t a healthy choice in general, but some alcohol is better for you than others. Red wine, whiskey, tequila, and hard kombucha are healthier options than beer and sugary drinks. The CDC recommends you limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day if you’re male and 1 if you’re female.
Nearly 70% of American adults drink each year. While alcohol certainly has some negative health effects, there can also be advantages to moderate consumption. “We have to clarify that alcohol is, indeed, a poison. So we’re not trying to say alcohol itself is healthy,” says Megan Kober, a registered dietitian with Metabolism Makeovers.
Is one shot of tequila a lot?
Can I Get Drunk After One Shot of Tequila? – It’s unlikely to get drunk after a single shot of tequila (1.5 fluid ounces). For people with low alcohol tolerance or drinking tequila on an empty stomach, it may be possible to feel a bit tipsy after one shot – but not totally drunk.
What is the lowest calorie liquor?
Take your spirits with low-sugar mixers – Unsurprisingly, straight spirits contain the least amount of calories as are nearly entirely ethanol without added sugar. Vodka is the alcohol with the lowest calories, at around 100 calories per shot (that’s a 50ml double-measure).
- Whisky is slightly more, at roughly 110 calories a shot.
- Gin and tequila are also 110 calories a shot.
- More sugary spirits, like sambuca, come in around 160 calories a shot (another reason to avoid them, besides the taste).
- That said, those calorie values are for the neat spirit – you need to ensure you don’t mix your spirits with high-sugar mixers like Coke, Red Bull or lemonade, which you can get through at a rate on a night out without realising you’re drinking hundreds of calories.
If you can’t face endless shots of vodka then substitute your soft drink mixer with soda water or diet tonic which have very little sugar. Even water if you’re feeling particularly bulgy post-dinner.
Is 2 shots of tequila a lot?
How Many Shots of Tequila Does It Usually Take to Get Drunk? – The average person would get mildly drunk on tequila after two shots, moderately drunk after four shots, and very drunk for anything more. Of course, this is highly subject to many different factors, such as weight, mood, age, and even alcohol tolerance. Read: How Many ML is a Shot?
What is healthier vodka or tequila?
Conclusion – The evidence is in. Tequila is the healthier choice of alcohol compared to other distilled spirits like vodka, rum, or whiskey. Unlike these types of liquor, tequila has lower levels of impurities and has agavins, making it a better option.
Does tequila give you a hangover?
Tequila with no hangover: does it exist? – Whether it’s Blanco, 100% agave, patron, or George Clooney’s Tequila, every single type can give you a hangover. So that means, a no Tequila hangover does not exist! And you should be suspicious if anyone tries to convince you otherwise.
Why is tequila the healthiest alcohol?
Mexico’s pride and joy, and a tart and tangy margarita cocktail’s main ingredient, tequila is a distilled spirit made from the blue agave. This succulent plant grows primarily in the area around the town of Tequila in the western state of Jalisco, and in the Jalisco Highlands.
The tequila designation is protected, applied only to a spirit made from blue agave and produced in certain areas appointed by the Mexican government. Other spirits made from agave are known as mezcal. Many internet articles link tequila with agave’s health benefits, but the plant loses its healthful properties during the fermenting process.
Tequila offers no proven benefits related to:
Bone densityBlood sugarColon health
Enjoying tequila offers the same benefits and risks as the moderate consumption of any kind of alcohol. But it may serve as a lower-calorie alternative to other spirits. One fluid ounce of tequila (80 proof) contains:
Calories: 64Protein: 0 gramsFat: 0 gramsCarbohydrates: 0 grams
Tequila has less sugar and calories than similar liquors, which may make it a slightly healthier option if you drink. But when mixing it with other ingredients, be careful to account for the whole drink’s nutrition and not just the tequila measure. Cocktails can be very high in sugar and may contain other alcohols as well.
Heart Disease Ischemic Stroke Diabetes
However, more studies are needed to confirm the relationship between moderate drinking and these benefits. Even the moderate consumption of alcohol is not free from risks, such as when:
DrivingDrinking when under the legal drinking ageDepressedYou are unable to control the amount you drinkYou’re pregnant or trying to conceive
If you drink alcohol when pregnant, it passes through the umbilical cord to the baby, increasing the risk of stillbirth or miscarriage. In addition, drinking while pregnant may result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children with FASDs may show a range of physical, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms.
Medication Interactions Many medications react harmfully with alcohol. Alcohol may make certain medications ineffective or toxic. The combination may also make you nauseous, drowsy, or uncoordinated. It may even put you at risk of respiratory problems, internal bleeding, or heart problems. Pay attention to medication labels and to instructions given by your doctor or pharmacist.
If you’re concerned about potential interaction with alcohol, don’t be afraid to ask. Excessive Drinking Moderate drinking can easily lead to excessive drinking, which increases the likelihood of risky behavior and can even put you in danger of alcohol poisoning.
Alcohol dependence High blood pressure, heart disease, or stroke Depression and anxiety Digestive problems Certain cancers Dementia A weak immune system
Healthy Diet and Exercise While moderate drinking may reduce your risk for certain conditions, a healthy diet and regular exercise will do even more to prevent heart disease.
Is tequila a natural fat burner?
Weight Loss – If you’re looking to lose weight, a bit of tequila could help. Tequila contains agavins, a natural sugar that comes from the agave plant. Agavins are ideal as sweeteners, because they are non-digestible and act as fiber, which helps promote weight loss.
This means that agavins won’t raise your blood sugar, making tequila ideal for people who have type 2 diabetes. Mexican researchers studied the effect of agavins on the diets of mice. They added agavins to the water they offered one group of mice, and those mice ate less and lost weight. Their blood glucose levels also decreased when compared to other mice in the study who consumed other types of sweeteners.
Agavins could be ideal light sweeteners thanks to their effect on the body.
Is tequila more fattening than beer?
Reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes – Agave contains agavins that may provide sweetness and nutrition without impacting blood sugar levels. This is because the body cannot absorb them. A 2014 study found that agavins help reduce blood sugar levels and improve insulin levels, which regulates blood sugar levels.
Since the body does not digest and absorb agavins in the same way as other sugars, consuming agavins may also aid in weight loss and reduce the risk of obesity, which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, most agave syrups that are commercially available contain fructans broken down into fructose sugars.
The body can digest fructose, and it does impact blood sugar levels. Learn more about how sugars affect diabetes here. The manufacturing process of many agave products strips them of nearly all their potentially beneficial compounds. The best way to reap the possible health benefits of agavins seems to be to consume raw agave plant material, sap, or supplements.
- While many agave nectars and syrups may claim to promote the benefits listed above, most do not.
- Some agave syrups may even contain more calories, sugar, and carbohydrates than regular sugar.
- One teaspoon (tsp) of agave syrup sweetener contains 21.4 calories, 5.27 grams (g) of carbohydrates, and 4.69 g of sugar.
One tsp of white, granulated sugar contains 16.2 calories, 4.18 g of carbohydrates, and 4.19 g of sugar. It is important to remember that most sugars, including agave, white sugar, and other natural sweeteners, such as honey and maple syrup, will affect the body in similar ways.
- Therefore, always consume sugars in moderation.
- Learn more about why sugars are bad for you here.
- Consuming any alcohol can be detrimental to health.
- However, some types of alcohol have less sugar and carbohydrates and fewer empty calories than others and could have fewer adverse health effects.
- Compared to wines, beers, and ciders, tequila contains no carbohydrates, no sugar, and fewer calories.
A 42 g shot of 100% tequila contains 97 calories and 0 carbohydrates. The table below shows how that compares to 1 serving of other types of alcohol: Historically, some studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption to a reduced risk of heart failure in some people.
However, this link is observational, not causal, and other lifestyle factors may have an affect. Researchers would need to carry out much more research into alcohol consumption levels and different types of alcohol to confirm any of the potential benefits. Learn more about the health effects of moderate drinking here,
The agavins in unprocessed agave contain several compounds that may benefit health. However, processed agave products, such as tequila and agave syrups and sweeteners, typically do not contain these beneficial compounds. Tequila may be a comparatively healthier option than some other types of alcohol because it contains fewer calories, zero sugar, and zero carbohydrates.
Do 0 calorie drinks exist?
#1: Water – The only true zero calorie food (or drink) is water. You can also freeze water into ice and then smash it and eat or suck on ice chips.
What drinks are 0 calories?
It’s hot, and you’re thirsty! But don’t just grab the first cool drink that comes along. What you choose to quench your thirst can make or break your weight-loss efforts. The way I see it, high-calorie beverages are one of the major reasons Americans are overweight. Think about how many people you know who drink several sodas every day. Now let’s do the math:
A 12-ounce soda (non-diet) contains around 150 calories (the equivalent of 10 teaspoons of sugar).So three sodas a day adds up to around 450 calories (the equivalent of 30 teaspoons of sugar).This means that every week, we would save approximately 3,150 calories (the equivalent of 210 teaspoons of sugar) if we switched from drinking three cans of soda a day to drinking three no-calorie beverages.
It just doesn’t make sense to spend your precious calories on sweet drinks that add calories without any nutritional value. Here are a few beverage facts that may help discourage you from sipping these empty-calorie beverages. Fact 1: Most people don’t drink enough water.
- So do your body a favor; when you get thirsty, reach for water first.
- Fact 2: If you choose a beverage that contains calories, select one that contributes important nutrients as well – like nonfat or low-fat milk or 100% fruit juice.
- According to a national survey of food consumption, as people’s milk intake went up, so did their intake of micronutrients ( vitamins and minerals).
But they didn’t end up consuming more fat or cholesterol. Fact 3: Liquid calories don’t tend to satisfy your hunger as well as calories from solid foods.
It stands to reason that if Americans drank less regular soda, the number of overweight and obese people would also decrease. In a recent policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics said that overconsumption of soft drinks could lead to overweight or obesity because of the calories it adds to the diet. A recent study on an educational program that encouraged children ages 7-11 to drink less soda found just that: Cutting down on carbonated drinks was linked to a modest decrease in the number of overweight and obese children over a year.The more sweetened beverages kids drink, the less milk they tend to consume. Researchers from Cornell University followed 30 children for two months. They found that the children who drank more than 12 ounces of sweetened drinks or soda per day gained significantly more weight than children who drink less than 6 ounces a day. The children didn’t appear to eat any less to compensate for the extra calories they were drinking.African-American teens who drank four or more sodas a day had a 6-point higher systolic blood pressure than white teens who drank the same amount of soda.
In the interest of cutting excess calories, it behooves us all to avoid regular sodas and other sweetened drinks when possible. The best way to do this is to drink no-calorie beverages instead. Some of the more obvious options are flavored mineral waters, seltzer water with a slice of lemon or lime, diet sodas in moderate amounts, and plain tea and coffee.
- It gets even better when the beverages contain substances that may help protect your health! Green and black tea contain phytochemicals (flavonols and catechins) thought to have health benefits.
- Most of the studies suggesting cancer -protective effects have been carried out with green tea, but black tea may also have protective qualities.
Antioxidants make up a third of the weight of dried tea leaves. And one of these antioxidants is EGCG, which was shown to slow the buildup of artery -clogging plaque in mice in a recent study. Keep in mind that when it comes to the phytochemicals in tea, freshly brewed is best.
- Apparently, bottled teas have less of these phytochemicals than freshly brewed tea.
- Iced tea is a great summer sipper as long as it isn’t sweetened.
- I’ve found that nicely flavored ice tea doesn’t need any sweeteners at all.
- And any great flavored tea can be turned into iced tea, just by chilling the pitcher in the refrigerator after it is brewed.
One of my favorite iced teas is Paradise brand Tropical Tea (Premium black tea with tropical fruit nectars), available in decaffeinated too. If you can spare a few calories, create your own iced tea drink by blending your favorite iced tea with 100% fruit juice or nectar.
Start by mixing 1/2 cup of ice tea with 1/2 cup of fruit juice or nectar, then taste. Add more of either until you get it just right! If you are looking for zero-calorie, high-flavor beverages, coffee and tea can fill that bill. They have no calories when you drink them in their “brewed with nothing added” form.
Trouble is, we often pump them up with syrups, honey, sugar, whipping cream, etc. “When we dress up coffee, we can easily go from zero calories.to around 250-500 calories.” Add the word “mocha,” or “caramel” to coffee, or the word “chai” or “tazo” to tea and it’s a whole different ball game.
- When we dress up coffee, we can easily go from zero calories and zero grams of fat to around 250-500 calories and around 4-18 grams of fat.
- To survive the coffeehouse without breaking your calorie bank account, follow these three general rules: 1.
- Skip the whipped cream,
- Say “yes” to “whip,” and you’ve just bought yourself 130 calories and 12 grams of fat (8 grams of saturated fat and 50 mg cholesterol).
I love whipping cream just as much as the next girl, so when I feel like adding it to my drink, I ask for “light whip” (I’ve found that a little goes a long way). But most of the time I just skip it, because what I am most looking forward to is the coffee flavor of the drink.2.
Nonfat milk is the milk of choice, Asking for nonfat milk in your coffee drinks helps bring down the calories and fat while boosting the protein and calcium, Example: A “tall” Iced Caffe Mocha from Starbucks with nonfat milk has 130 calories and 1.5 grams of fat. The same drink made with whole milk has 170 calories and 6 grams fat.3.
When choosing a coffee with calories, order the smallest size available, Example: A “tall” Starbucks Caramel Frappuccino (no whip and with nonfat milk) has 210 calories and 2.5 grams of fat. A “Venti” size of the same drink totals 390 calories and 4.5 grams of fat.
If a no-calorie beverage just won’t do, 100% fruit juice is a good choice because it contains some nutrients, such as vitamin C, phytochemicals, fiber, and folic acid, But the calories can still add up if you have a tall glass of juice. Cut the calories in your fruit juice in half by blending it with some zero-calorie seltzer water, club soda, or mineral water.
One of my favorite juice spritzers is 1/2 cup of mango or passion fruit juice/nectar blended with 1/2 cup of seltzer water. Warning: Make sure when you are buying flavored mineral waters and seltzers that they have zero calories. Some of the brands are sweetened as well as flavored.
Pour 8 cups seltzer water into a clear pitcher. Add the cucumber and lemon slices and two trays of ice cubes. Stirring occasionally, let the ingredients chill together for about 10 minutes before serving.When you pour into glasses, make sure each serving gets some ice cubes, several slices of cucumber, and a couple of slices of lemon.
Yield: 1 pitcher (about 8 servings) Per serving: 0 calories, 0 g protein, 0 g carbohydrate, 0 g fat, 0 mg cholesterol, 0 g fiber, 40 mg sodium. Calories from fat: 0%. Journal as: 1 serving of skim milk + 2 teaspoons cocoa mix sweetened or 2 teaspoons sugar (for the chocolate syrup).1 1/2 cups cold decaf coffee (on the strong side) 1/3 cup fat-free half-and-half 1/3 cup low-fat milk 2 tablespoons chocolate syrup 2 tablespoons Splenda
Pour coffee into an ice cube tray. Freeze until solid (at least two hours).Put the coffee ice cubes, fat-free half-and-half, low-fat milk, chocolate syrup, and Splenda in a blender. Blend until smooth. Pour into two glasses.
Yield: 2 servings Per glass: 90 calories, 5 g protein, 18 g carbohydrate, 0.7 g fat (0.4 g saturated fat, 0.2 g monounsaturated fat, 0 g polyunsaturated fat), 3 mg cholesterol, 0.3 g fiber, 90 mg sodium. Calories from fat: 6%. Journal as: 3/4 cup 100% fruit juice.1 1/2 cups orange juice ( calcium -fortified, if available) 2 1/4 cups light cranberry juice cocktail (or light cran-raspberry juice cocktail)
Pour the orange juice into an ice cube tray and freeze until solid (at least two hours). Meanwhile, chill cranberry juice cocktail in the refrigerator.Pour about 3/4 cup of the cranberry juice cocktail into a clear glass, then add about five ice cubes. Repeat with remaining cranberry juice and ice cubes.
Yield: 3 servings Per glass: 85 calories, 1 g protein.19.5 g carbohydrate, 0 g fat, 0 mg cholesterol, 0.3 g fiber, 63 mg sodium. Calories from fat: 0%.
Is tequila good for keto?
While following a keto diet, you may be able to enjoy alcoholic drinks that are low in carbs, like hard liquor and light beer. But those containing carbs and sugar, including many cocktails, may not align with a keto diet. The ketogenic (keto) diet is a low carb, high fat diet that many adopt to lose weight and improve their health.
- You typically have to plan your meals carefully so that you stick to your daily carb allotment and keep your body in ketosis.
- This may mean giving up sweets, snacks, and other high carb indulgences like soft drinks and alcohol.
- However, there are plenty of low carb alcoholic beverages that you can enjoy in moderation — even on a keto diet.
This article suggests the best and worst alcoholic drinks to choose while on the keto diet. Many low carb alcohol options are available if you follow a keto diet, For instance, pure forms of alcohol like whiskey, gin, tequila, rum, and vodka are all completely free of carbs.
You can drink them straight or combine them with low carb mixers for more flavor. Wine and light varieties of beer are also relatively low in carbs — usually containing under 6 grams (g) per serving. Here’s how the top keto-friendly drinks stack up ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 ): Summary Pure alcohol like rum, vodka, gin, tequila, and whiskey contains no carbs.
In addition, wine, light beer, and some cocktails can be relatively low in carbs. Keto-friendly mixers are just as important as the alcohol itself. Watch for common mixers like regular soda, juice, sweeteners, and energy drinks, They can quickly turn a carb-free drink into a high calorie carb bomb.
Instead, opt for low carb mixers like diet soda, seltzer, diet tonic water, and powdered flavor packets. These mixers can keep your carb intake low while boosting your beverage’s taste. Here’s the carb content of a few keto-friendly mixers ( 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 ): Summary Low carb mixers like diet soda, carbonated water, and powdered flavor packets can help keep the carb content of your drink to a minimum.
Many alcoholic beverages are loaded with carbs, with some varieties packing over 30 g in a single serving. For example, cocktails and mixed drinks usually rely on high carb, sugary ingredients like soda, juice, sweeteners, or syrups. Meanwhile, regular beer is produced from starch and can contain upward of 12 g of carbs in just 1 can.
- Here’s a comparison of the carb content of several popular alcoholic beverages.
- Avoid them if you’re on a keto diet ( 8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 ): Also, keep in mind that the drinks you might get at a bar or restaurant may be much larger than the recommended serving sizes above.
- Summary Cocktails, mixed drinks, and regular beer are often high in carbs, providing over 10 g per serving.
These are best avoided if you’re on a keto diet. Although plenty of low carb, keto-friendly alcoholic beverages are available, that doesn’t mean they should become a regular part of your routine. Even low carb varieties of alcohol are still rich in “empty” calories.
They supply many calories with little to no essential nutrients like protein, fiber, vitamins, or minerals. Not only can overindulging in alcohol increase your risk of nutritional deficiencies over time, but it may also contribute to gradual weight gain. In fact, in one 8-year study involving 49,324 women, consuming at least two drinks per day was associated with an increased risk of significant weight gain, compared to light or moderate drinking ( 24 ).
Alcohol can also suppress fat burning and increase body fat by causing your body to store extra calories as fat tissue ( 25 ). Excessive drinking may also contribute to other serious health conditions, including liver problems, cancer, and heart disease ( 26, 27, 28, 29 ).
- For this reason, it’s best to keep alcohol intake moderate — defined as one drink per day for women and two per day for men ( 30 ).
- Summary Even low carb varieties of alcohol can contribute to weight gain, nutritional deficiencies, and serious health conditions.
- This is why it’s important to moderate your intake.
Even on a keto diet, there are plenty of low carb alcoholic beverages to choose from. Wine, light beer, and pure alcohol offer little to no carbs per serving. In addition, you can easily pair them with low carb mixers like diet soda, seltzer, and diet tonic water.
Which alcohol has the least calories?
What alcoholic drink is the lowest in calories? – A vodka soda, which is 1.5 ounces of vodka combined with club soda and a squeeze of freshly squeezed lemon or lime juice, is the lowest-calorie drink. This drink contains 82 calories in about an 8-ounce drink.
What liquor is the lowest calories?
The lowest-calorie alcohol is vodka, which only has 100 calories in a 50-millimeter shot. Other alcohols among those with the lowest calories are whisky, gin, and tequila, which all have about 110 calories per shot. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, alcohol is basically empty calories.
Is tequila less calories or vodka?
Vodka vs. Tequila Calorie Comparison – When you compare a shot of tequila to the same amount of vodka, you win on calories alone. Vodka will come in with an average of 96 calories, while tequila has around just 64. This was reported in the NY Post story I cited below, but upon doing my own digging, I found other information.