- 0.1 Can we live on Titan?
- 1 Has anyone been to Uranus?
- 2 How long could I survive on Neptune?
- 3 How close did Voyager 2 get to Neptune?
How long would it take someone to reach Neptune?
Problem 2 – The planet Neptune is located 4.5 billion kilometers from Earth. How many years would it take a rocket traveling at the speed of the International Space Station to make this journey? Answer: Time = 4,500,000,000 km / 28,000 km/h = 160714 hours or 6696 days or 18.3 years.
Will humans go to Neptune?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Neptune. Processed image from Voyager 2 ‘ s narrow-angle camera 16 or 17 of August 1989. Neptune’s south pole is at the bottom of the image. Neptune has been directly explored by one space probe, Voyager 2, in 1989. As of December 2022, there are no confirmed future missions to visit the Neptunian system, although a tentative Chinese mission has been planned for launch in 2024.
Can we live on Titan?
Potential for Life – The Cassini spacecraft’s numerous gravity measurements of Titan revealed that the moon is hiding an underground ocean of liquid water (likely mixed with salts and ammonia). The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe also measured radio signals during its descent to the surface, in 2005, that strongly suggested the presence of an ocean 35 to 50 miles (55 to 80 kilometers) below the icy ground.
The discovery of a global ocean of liquid water adds Titan to the handful of worlds in our solar system that could potentially contain habitable environments. Additionally, Titan’s rivers, lakes and seas of liquid methane and ethane might serve as a habitable environment on the moon’s surface, though any life there would likely be very different from Earth’s life.
Thus, Titan could potentially harbor environments with conditions suitable for life—meaning both life as we know it (in the subsurface ocean) and life as we don’t know it (in the hydrocarbon liquid on the surface). Although there is so far no evidence of life on Titan, its complex chemistry and unique environments are certain to make it a destination for continued exploration.
Can humans go to Uranus?
Surface – As an ice giant, Uranus doesn’t have a true surface. The planet is mostly swirling fluids. While a spacecraft would have nowhere to land on Uranus, it wouldn’t be able to fly through its atmosphere unscathed either. The extreme pressures and temperatures would destroy a metal spacecraft.
Has anyone been to Uranus?
Significant Events –
Mar.13, 1781: British astronomer William Herschel discovers Uranus—the first new planet discovered since ancient times – while searching for faint stars. 1787-1851: Four Uranian moons are discovered and named Titania, Oberon, Ariel and Umbriel. 1948: Another moon, Miranda, is discovered. Mar.10, 1977: While observing Uranus’ passing in front of a distant star (SAO 158687), scientists at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and the Perth Observatory in Australia were eager for a rare chance to observe the distant planet. Observations before and after the main event led to a major discovery: Uranus, like Saturn, is encircled with rings. Jan.24, 1986: NASA’s Voyager 2 made the first – and so far the only – visit to Uranus. The spacecraft came within 50,600 miles (81,500 kilometers) of the planet’s cloud tops. Voyager discovered 10 new moons, two new rings and a magnetic field stronger than that of Saturn. Dec.22, 2005: NASA announces the discovery of a new pair of rings around Uranus and two new, small moons (Mab and Cupid) orbiting the planet from photographs taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. The largest ring discovered by Hubble is twice the diameter of the planet’s previously known rings. 2006: Observations made at the Keck Observatory and by the Hubble Space Telescope show that Uranus’ outer ring is colored blue while the new inner ring is reddish. Dec.2007: Uranus reaches equinox. Equinox is when the planet is fully illuminated as the Sun passes over its equator. Equinox also brings a ring-plane crossing, when Uranus’ rings appear to get narrower as they pass through, appearing edge-on and then widen again as seen from Earth. Mar.18, 2011: New Horizons passes the orbit of Uranus on its way to Pluto, becoming the first spacecraft to journey beyond Uranus’ orbit since Voyager 2. However, Uranus was not near the crossing point. The spacecraft is asleep during most of its eight-year interplanetary trek from Jupiter to Pluto. Mission controllers do wake up New Horizons for 50 days each year to perform necessary checkups on its instruments.
Notable Explorers Suzanne “Suzy” Dodd Project Manager “Math is going to be the basis for all the science and engineering that you will have to do in the future.” Susan Niebur (1973-2012) Astrophysicist I decided that my dream was to work for NASA, even if there weren’t any girls there yet. Someday there would be, and I was going to be one. Renu Malhotra Professor of Planetary Sciences “There are interesting and important problems everywhere. You just have to be open to them.” Phillips Phil Davis Web Producer Ask lots of questions. Be persistent. And never stop exploring your options. Neil Gehrels (1952-2017) Astrophysicist The happiest people I know are ones who think of their field as both a hobby and a job. Mark Hofstadter Planetary Scientist “To me, being a scientist means seeing something in nature and wanting to figure out how it works or why it is the way it is.” Jeffrey Cuzzi Research Scientist “Stay close to subjects that fascinate you personally, but also ask why is the subject important.” James Green NASA Chief Scientist (Retired) there is absolutely no substitute for being determined. Gerard Kuiper (1905 – 1973) Astronomer Kuiper studied the planets. at a time when they were scarcely of interest to other astronomers. Fran Bagenal Co-Investigator for the New Horizons Mission “Getting along with people is also important – perhaps as important as solving big equations.” Eric De Jong (1947-2017) Planetary Scientist Eric pioneered the use of stereo HDTV, IMAX, and digital cinema technology for the visualization of planetary surfaces and atmospheres. Dr. Bonnie Buratti Deputy Project Scientist, Europa Clipper Mission “When I was a little girl Sputnik was launched, and I was instantly drawn into the whole miracle of spaceflight and exploring the cosmos.” Carl Sagan (1934-1996) Planetary Scientist Imagination will often carry us to worlds that never were. But without it we go nowhere. Suzanne “Suzy” Dodd Project Manager “Math is going to be the basis for all the science and engineering that you will have to do in the future.” Missions Careers
Is there any oxygen on Mars?
Oxygen is Rare on Mars There is less than 1% of air on Mars as there is on Earth, and carbon dioxide makes up about 96% of it on Mars. Oxygen is only 0.13%, compared to 21% in Earth’s atmosphere. If we want oxygen on Mars, we either have to bring it along, or make it ourselves.
How hot is Mars?
Temperature – Measurements of Martian temperature predate the Space Age, However, early instrumentation and techniques of radio astronomy produced crude, differing results. Early flyby probes ( Mariner 4 ) and later orbiters used radio occultation to perform aeronomy,
With chemical composition already deduced from spectroscopy, temperature and pressure could then be derived. Nevertheless, flyby occultations can only measure properties along two transects, at their trajectories’ entries and exits from Mars’ disk as seen from Earth. This results in weather “snapshots” at a particular area, at a particular time.
Orbiters then increase the number of radio transects. Later missions, starting with the dual Mariner 6 and 7 flybys, plus the Soviet Mars 2 and 3, carried infrared detectors to measure radiant energy, Mariner 9 was the first to place an infrared radiometer and spectrometer in Mars orbit in 1971, along with its other instruments and radio transmitter.
Viking 1 and 2 followed, with not merely Infrared Thermal Mappers (IRTM). The missions could also corroborate these remote sensing datasets with not only their in situ lander metrology booms, but with higher-altitude temperature and pressure sensors for their descent. Differing in situ values have been reported for the average temperature on Mars, with a common value being −63 °C (210 K; −81 °F).
Surface temperatures may reach a high of about 20 °C (293 K; 68 °F) at noon, at the equator, and a low of about −153 °C (120 K; −243 °F) at the poles. Actual temperature measurements at the Viking landers’ site range from −17.2 °C (256.0 K; 1.0 °F) to −107 °C (166 K; −161 °F).
The warmest soil temperature estimated by the Viking Orbiter was 27 °C (300 K; 81 °F). The Spirit rover recorded a maximum daytime air temperature in the shade of 35 °C (308 K; 95 °F), and regularly recorded temperatures well above 0 °C (273 K; 32 °F), except in winter. It has been reported that “On the basis of the nighttime air temperature data, every northern spring and early northern summer yet observed were identical to within the level of experimental error (to within ±1 °C)” but that the “daytime data, however, suggests a somewhat different story, with temperatures varying from year-to-year by up to 6 °C in this season.
This day-night discrepancy is unexpected and not understood”. In southern spring and summer, variance is dominated by dust storms which increase the value of the night low temperature and decrease the daytime peak temperature. This results in a small (20 °C) decrease in average surface temperature, and a moderate (30 °C) increase in upper atmosphere temperature.
Before and after the Viking missions, newer, more advanced Martian temperatures were determined from Earth via microwave spectroscopy. As the microwave beam, of under 1 arcminute, is larger than the disk of the planet, the results are global averages. Later, the Mars Global Surveyor ‘s Thermal Emission Spectrometer and to a lesser extent 2001 Mars Odyssey ‘s THEMIS could not merely reproduce infrared measurements but intercompare lander, rover, and Earth microwave data.
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ‘s Mars Climate Sounder can similarly derive atmospheric profiles, The datasets “suggest generally colder atmospheric temperatures and lower dust loading in recent decades on Mars than during the Viking Mission,” although Viking data had previously been revised downward.
The TES data indicates “Much colder (10–20 K) global atmospheric temperatures were observed during the 1997 versus 1977 perihelion periods” and “that the global aphelion atmosphere of Mars is colder, less dusty, and cloudier than indicated by the established Viking climatology,” again, taking into account the Wilson and Richardson revisions to Viking data.
A later comparison, while admitting “it is the microwave record of air temperatures which is the most representative,” attempted to merge the discontinuous spacecraft record. No measurable trend in global average temperature between Viking IRTM and MGS TES was visible.
“Viking and MGS air temperatures are essentially indistinguishable for this period, suggesting that the Viking and MGS eras are characterized by essentially the same climatic state.” It found “a strong dichotomy ” between the northern and southern hemispheres, a “very asymmetric paradigm for the Martian annual cycle: a northern spring and summer which is relatively cool, not very dusty, and relatively rich in water vapor and ice clouds; and a southern summer rather similar to that observed by Viking with warmer air temperatures, less water vapor and water ice, and higher levels of atmospheric dust.” The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MCS (Mars Climate Sounder) instrument was, upon arrival, able to operate jointly with MGS for a brief period; the less-capable Mars Odyssey THEMIS and Mars Express SPICAM datasets may also be used to span a single, well-calibrated record.
While MCS and TES temperatures are generally consistent, investigators report possible cooling below the analytical precision. “After accounting for this modeled cooling, MCS MY 28 temperatures are an average of 0.9 (daytime) and 1.7 K (night-time) cooler than TES MY 24 measurements.” It has been suggested that Mars had a much thicker, warmer atmosphere early in its history.
- Much of this early atmosphere would have consisted of carbon dioxide.
- Such an atmosphere would have raised the temperature, at least in some places, to above the freezing point of water.
- With the higher temperature running water could have carved out the many channels and outflow valleys that are common on the planet.
It also may have gathered together to form lakes and maybe an ocean. Some researchers have suggested that the atmosphere of Mars may have been many times as thick as the Earth’s; however research published in September 2015 advanced the idea that perhaps the early Martian atmosphere was not as thick as previously thought.
- Currently, the atmosphere is very thin.
- For many years, it was assumed that as with the Earth, most of the early carbon dioxide was locked up in minerals, called carbonates.
- However, despite the use of many orbiting instruments that looked for carbonates, very few carbonate deposits have been found.
- Today, it is thought that much of the carbon dioxide in the Martian air was removed by the solar wind,
Researchers have discovered a two-step process that sends the gas into space. Ultraviolet light from the Sun could strike a carbon dioxide molecule, breaking it into carbon monoxide and oxygen. A second photon of ultraviolet light could subsequently break the carbon monoxide into oxygen and carbon which would get enough energy to escape the planet.
|Climate data for Gale Crater (2012–2015)|
|Record high °C (°F)||6 (43)||6 (43)||1 (34)||0 (32)||7 (45)||14 (57)||20 (68)||19 (66)||7 (45)||7 (45)||8 (46)||8 (46)||20 (68)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−7 (19)||−20 (−4)||−23 (−9)||−20 (−4)||−4 (25)||0.0 (32.0)||2 (36)||1 (34)||1 (34)||4 (39)||−1 (30)||−3 (27)||−5.7 (21.7)|
|Average low °C (°F)||−82 (−116)||−86 (−123)||−88 (−126)||−87 (−125)||−85 (−121)||−78 (−108)||−76 (−105)||−69 (−92)||−68 (−90)||−73 (−99)||−73 (−99)||−77 (−107)||−78.5 (−109.3)|
|Record low °C (°F)||−95 (−139)||−127 (−197)||−114 (−173)||−97 (−143)||−98 (−144)||−125 (−193)||−84 (−119)||−80 (−112)||−78 (−108)||−78 (−109)||−83 (−117)||−110 (−166)||−127 (−197)|
|Source: Centro de Astrobiología, Mars Weather, NASA Quest, SpaceDaily|
How long could I survive on Neptune?
6. Uranus and Neptune – Uranus and Neptune are also gas giants, so as Tyson explains point-blank, “No, forget about it.” Yep, you would only survive on each of these for less than one second. That’s not even taking into account the temperatures, with Neptune averaging -373 degrees F and Uranus at -353 F.
How fast do you age on Neptune?
Enter your age on Earth: Years Months Age on Neptune: Enter your age in the box above, then click the CALCULATE button to see how old you’d be on the planet Neptune. A year on Neptune is almost 165 Earth years long. This means that every living human is less than one Neptune year old.
Questions about Neptune Information about Neptune
TE AWAMUTU SPACE CENTRE HOME | ABOUT | CONTACT | FACEBOOK | TWITTER
How close did Voyager 2 get to Neptune?
In Depth: Voyager 2 – The two-spacecraft Voyager missions were designed to replace original plans for a “Grand Tour” of the planets that would have used four highly complex spacecraft to explore the five outer planets during the late 1970s. Voyager 2 launched on Aug.20, 1977, about two weeks before the Sept.5 launch of Voyager 1. Why the reversal of order? The two were sent on different trajectories, and Voyager 1 was put on a path to reach its planetary targets, Jupiter and Saturn, ahead of Voyager 2.
- Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech NASA canceled the plan in January 1972 largely due to anticipated costs (projected at $1 billion) and instead proposed to launch only two spacecraft in 1977 to Jupiter and Saturn.
- The two spacecraft were designed to explore the two gas giants in more detail than the two Pioneers (Pioneers 10 and 11) that preceded them.
In 1974, mission planners proposed a mission in which, if the first Voyager was successful, the second one could be redirected to Uranus and then Neptune using gravity assist maneuvers. Each of the two spacecraft was equipped with a slow-scan color TV camera to take images of the planets and their moons and each also carried an extensive suite of instruments to record magnetic, atmospheric, lunar, and other data about the planetary systems.
- The design of the two spacecraft was based on the older Mariners, and they were known as Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 until March 7, 1977, when NASA Administrator James C.
- Fletcher (1919-1991) announced that they would be renamed Voyager.
- Power was provided by three plutonium dioxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) mounted at the end of a boom.
Voyager 2 began transmitting images of Jupiter April 24, 1979, for time-lapse movies of atmospheric circulation. Unlike Voyager 1, Voyager 2 made close passes to the Jovian moons on its way into the system, with scientists especially interested in more information from Europa and Io (which necessitated a 10 hour-long “volcano watch”).
- During its encounter, it relayed back spectacular photos of the entire Jovian system, including its moons Callisto, Ganymede, Europa (at a range of about 127,830 miles or 205,720 kilometers, much closer than Voyager 1), Io, and Amalthea, all of which had already been surveyed by Voyager 1.
- Voyager 2’s closest encounter to Jupiter was at 22:29 UT July 9, 1979, at a range of about 400,785 miles (645,000 kilometers).
It transmitted new data on the planet’s clouds, its newly discovered four moons, and ring system as well as 17,000 new pictures. When the earlier Pioneers flew by Jupiter, they detected few atmospheric changes from one encounter to the second, but Voyager 2 detected many significant changes, including a drift in the Great Red Spot as well as changes in its shape and color.
With the combined cameras of the two Voyagers, at least 80% of the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto were mapped out to a resolution of about 3 miles (5 kilometers). Following a course correction two hours after its closest approach to Jupiter, Voyager 2 sped to Saturn, its trajectory determined to a large degree by a decision made in January 1981, to try to send the spacecraft to Uranus and Neptune later in the decade.
Its encounter with the sixth planet began Aug.22, 1981, two years after leaving the Jovian system, with imaging of the moon Iapetus. Once again, Voyager 2 repeated the photographic mission of its predecessor, although it actually flew about 14,290 miles (23,000 kilometers) closer to Saturn.
The closest encounter to Saturn was at 01:21 UT Aug.26, 1981, at a range of about 63,000 miles (101,000 kilometers). The spacecraft provided more detailed images of the ring “spokes” and kinks, and also the F-ring and its shepherding moons, all found by Voyager 1. Voyager 2’s data suggested that Saturn’s A-ring was perhaps only about 980 feet (300 meters) thick.
As it flew behind and up past Saturn, the probe passed through the plane of Saturn’s rings at a speed of 8 miles per second (13 kilometers per second). For several minutes during this phase, the spacecraft was hit by thousands of micron-sized dust grains that created “puff” plasma as they were vaporized.
- Because the vehicle’s attitude was repeatedly shifted by the particles, attitude control jets automatically fired many times to stabilize the vehicle.
- During the encounter, Voyager 2 also photographed the Saturn moons Hyperion (the “hamburger moon”), Enceladus, Tethys, and Phoebe as well as the more recently discovered Helene, Telesto and Calypso.
Although Voyager 2 had fulfilled its primary mission goals with the two planetary encounters, mission planners directed the veteran spacecraft to Uranus—a journey that would take about 4.5 years. In fact, its encounter with Jupiter was optimized in part to ensure that future planetary flybys would be possible.
The Uranus encounter’s geometry was also defined by the possibility of a future encounter with Neptune: Voyager 2 had only 5.5 hours of close study during its flyby. Voyager 2 was the first human-made object to fly past the planet Uranus. Long-range observations of the planet began Nov.4, 1985, when signals took approximately 2.5 hours to reach Earth.
Light conditions were 400 times less than terrestrial conditions. Closest approach to Uranus took place at 17:59 UT Jan.24, 1986, at a range of about 50,640 miles (81,500 kilometers). During its flyby, Voyager 2 discovered 10 new moons (given such names as Puck, Portia, Juliet, Cressida, Rosalind, Belinda, Desdemona, Cordelia, Ophelia, and Bianca – obvious allusions to Shakespeare), two new rings in addition to the “older” nine rings, and a magnetic field tilted at 55 degrees off-axis and off-center.
The spacecraft found wind speeds in Uranus’ atmosphere as high as 450 miles per hour (724 kilometers per hour) and found evidence of a boiling ocean of water some 497 miles (800 kilometers) below the top cloud surface. Its rings were found to be extremely variable in thickness and opacity. Voyager 2 also returned spectacular photos of Miranda, Oberon, Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, five of Uranus’ larger moons.
In flying by Miranda at a range of only 17,560 miles (28,260 kilometers), the spacecraft came closest to any object so far in its nearly decade-long travels. Images of the moon showed a strange object whose surface was a mishmash of peculiar features that seemed to have no rhyme or reason.
Uranus itself appeared generally featureless. The spectacular news of the Uranus encounter was interrupted the same week by the tragic Challenger accident that killed seven astronauts during their space shuttle launch Jan.28, 1986. Following the Uranus encounter, the spacecraft performed a single midcourse correction Feb.14, 1986—the largest ever made by Voyager 2—to set it on a precise course to Neptune.
Voyager 2’s encounter with Neptune capped a 4.3 billion-mile (7 billion-kilometer) journey when, on Aug.25, 1989, at 03:56 UT, it flew about 2,980 miles (4,800 kilometers) over the cloud tops of the giant planet, the closest of its four flybys. It was the first human-made object to fly by the planet.
Its 10 instruments were still in working order at the time. During the encounter, the spacecraft discovered six new moons (Proteus, Larissa, Despina, Galatea, Thalassa, and Naiad) and four new rings. The planet itself was found to be more active than previously believed, with 680-mile (1,100-kilometer) per hour winds.
Hydrogen was found to be the most common atmospheric element, although the abundant methane gave the planet its blue appearance. Images revealed details of the three major features in the planetary clouds—the Lesser Dark Spot, the Great Dark Spot, and Scooter.
Voyager photographed two-thirds of Neptune’s largest moon Triton, revealing the coldest known planetary body in the solar system and a nitrogen ice “volcano” on its surface. Spectacular images of its southern hemisphere showed a strange, pitted cantaloupe-type terrain. The flyby of Neptune concluded Voyager 2’s planetary encounters, which spanned an amazing 12 years in deep space, virtually accomplishing the originally planned “Grand Tour” of the solar system, at least in terms of targets reached if not in science accomplished.
Once past the Neptune system, Voyager 2 followed a course below the ecliptic plane and out of the solar system. Approximately 35 million miles (56 million kilometers) past the encounter, Voyager 2’s instruments were put in low power mode to conserve energy.
- After the Neptune encounter, NASA formally renamed the entire project the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM).
- Of the four spacecraft sent out to beyond the environs of the solar system in the 1970s, three of them – Voyagers 1 and 2 and Pioneer 11 – were all heading in the direction of the solar apex, i.e., the apparent direction of the Sun’s travel in the Milky Way galaxy, and thus would be expected to reach the heliopause earlier than Pioneer 10 which was headed in the direction of the heliospheric tail.
In November 1998, 21 years after launch, nonessential instruments were permanently turned off, leaving seven instruments still operating. Through the turn of the century, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) continued to receive ultraviolet and particle fields data.
- For example, on Jan.12, 2001, an immense shock wave that had blasted out of the outer heliosphere on July 14, 2000, finally reached Voyager 2.
- During its six-month journey, the shock wave had plowed through the solar wind, sweeping up and accelerating charged particles.
- The spacecraft provided important information on high-energy shock-energized ions.
On Aug.30, 2007, Voyager 2 passed the termination shock and then entered the heliosheath. By Nov.5, 2017, the spacecraft was 116.167 AU (about 10.8 billion miles or about 17.378 billion kilometers) from Earth, moving at a velocity of 9.6 miles per second (15.4 kilometers per second) relative to the Sun, heading in the direction of the constellation Telescopium.
At this velocity, it would take about 19,390 years to traverse a single light-year. On July 8, 2019, Voyager 2 successfully fired up its trajectory correction maneuver thrusters and will be using them to control the pointing of the spacecraft for the foreseeable future. Voyager 2 last used those thrusters during its encounter with Neptune in 1989.
The spacecraft’s aging attitude control thrusters have been experiencing degradation that required them to fire an increasing and untenable number of pulses to keep the spacecraft’s antenna pointed at Earth. Voyager 1 had switched to its trajectory correction maneuver thrusters for the same reason in January 2018. This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986.